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As Histórias da Bíblia e os Mitos da Antiguidade (Portuguese Edition). by Élvio Gusmão Educação nova: As bases (Portuguese Edition).
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The second is an unfinished book titled History of the Future. The third, and the one considered by Vieira as his opus magnum, was the Clavis Prophetarum yet another unfinished book. Notwithstanding, it appears possible to affirm that his work represents a much more elaborate construction than one could initially expect. It can be considered as a systematic construction, probably the result of many years of personal questioning on the reasons why the promised divine kingdom had not yet happened.

The apparent imminence of the end of time that every commentator seems to have emphasized over the centuries has been, if we go back There had to be a reason for that. Consequently, the search for signs confirming the authenticity of biblical prophecies represents natural human behavior. Hence, it is clear that his personal convictions influenced in part his systematization since the beginning of his eschatological career. Ad- ditionally, it is necessary to remember how intertwined were the interests of the Portuguese crown with those of the Society of Jesus. The epoch in which the Jesuit lived, , was also a particular one: it saw daily events as part of a divine eschatological plan.

The world was getting ready for the imminent advent of the Kingdom of God and for the Last Judgment. Furthermore, the world was understood in accordance with the sequen- ce of empires described in the book of Daniel. The content of the book of Daniel becomes to Vieira, what S. In fact, the death of the king marks the rebirth of sebastiamism.

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Thus, the polemic that follows. It is clear that a document written by Vieira cannot be a simple letter, but most probably, a treatise in which he describes his theory concerning the Fifth Empire while forecasting the resurrection of the Portuguese monarch. He was elected bishop of Japan in by D. Meanwhile, he was the confessor of the prince D.

Therefore, it is possible to assume that he and Vieira exchanged several letters during this period because of the Missions in Brazil.

From this point onward we will keep with the Portuguese nomenclature of this phenomenon. It is easier for the historian familiar with Vieira to believe that the diplomat and the visionary shared a common theory concerning the future of the realm. Three years earlier, he preached the Sermon of Salvaterra when the king was ill, and he said that the monarch could not die because he had not yet realized everything that had been prophesied by Bandarra.

If we continue to explore this line of thinking, it is possible to accept that the letter was a continuation of such thoughts and beliefs. The content of the letter and the agitation around it were enough to call the attention of the Inquisition, which had long waited for an opportunity to publicly treat Vieira as an enemy.

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Are we not also presented with some sort of personal profound belief in the biblical prophets and in the interpretation that Vieira made of the verses of Bandarra? Bandarra is a true prophet: Bandarra prophesized that H. The use of this kind of syllogism is not novelty. Many others had used this resource before to explain the difference between true and false biblical prophets.


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The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; do not be frightened by it. In fact, in all of these events the king of Portugal would star, either in the present or in the future. Vieira also underlines how Bandarra had forecast that the pope was not going to accept the restoration of Portuguese independence. He stresses how that was so true that it happened not only with one pope, but with three.

As he says, only the defeat of the Turk by the king of Portugal would force the pope to recognize the Portuguese sovereignity and its independence from Spain. Apparently, he is. In this way, Vieira launches the fundamentals of his theory of the Fifth Empire, one that would be continuously refuted by the authorities and time, bringing him many problems in the days to follow.

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Not even all of the vicissitudes he has to undertake, however, will make him change his opinion or retract before the Inquisition regarding the content of this letter. Buescu states, the similarities in content as well in the title, are reason enough to support this theory. Even if we account for the fact that the structure of the work is clearly different: the first is a letter, while the second is a treatise, or a manifesto. Nevertheless, , the year he recorded in the manuscript and the one during which he answered before the Inquisition Court the investigation took place between and , appears to represent the beginning of a continuous process of writing of this book.

In accordance with Vieira, the prophets had already announced this consummation several centuries before, providing the reason why he exhorts his readers to read Daniel and Enoch. Vieira assumes that attempting to know the future is permissible to the human being, even if St Augustine said otherwise. Is this modesty, or diplomacy? Hence, it is easily explained how Vieira had in mind a difficult period that would anticipate the glory of the end, comparable to the tribulation described in the biblical books.

For that reason, he commands the Portuguese to have hope on their glo- rious future. Therefore, he says, the reason why he wrote this book in Portuguese is so that they can read and understand that the future holds for them yet more glorious times than the Age of Discoveries. Thus, sacrifices and pain were necessary. In this book, Vieira describes the four empires that anticipate the fifth. It is however, curious to note that he does not apply the imperial chronology used in the biblical books. While describing the succession of empires, Vieira takes his time to explain the reasons behind the length of the Roman Empire37 and how it had been transfor- med over the centuries, experiencing presently a moment of decadence and division into several smaller kingdoms, and how Portugal was one of those smaller kingdoms.

This mixture represents, according to him, a forecast on how the Roman Empire would later be divided into smaller pieces, and which history had proven to be right. Consequently, the cen- tral power of the empire was condemned since the beginning to vanish due to successive and sustained fragility.

He underlines particularly the bravery of the Portuguese, who had departed toward the unknown Far East. Since he had already demonstrated how biblical prophets had forecast this future empire, Vieira can now explain how this is the empire of Christ and of the Christians, in opposition to that of the Jews and Muslims. However, as if this demonstration of divine will is not enough to confirm his interpretation, he uses the texts of Daniel 7 and Zechariah 5 to further prove his interpreta- tion.


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  6. In addition, the image he uses from Daniel , where the kingship of the Holy Ones of the Most High was described, was for him another clear reference to a future yet to come. Therefore, one should con- sider it to represent the corollary of his intellectual life. This consequently obliges the reader to consider it as a product written in places such as the Brazilian jungle, the Inquisitional Court, Rome, Lisbon, and later once again in Brazil.

    On the other hand, such interpretation offers the reader a very large chronolo- gical span regarding the creation of this work. Casnedi denies that any moral imperfection could be found in this book.


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    Therefore, and for matters of practicality, we are limiting our current analysis to the last book, the one that has been published in a critical edition Latin and Portuguese in and therefore available. Moreover, he mentions that it was Christ who wanted humankind to search for the date of the end of the world to determine whether it was close to the present. Good examples of this can be found, once again, in Daniel and Revelation. Although his main purpose was to justify his affirmations, Vieira cites names of those such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Jerome, Isidore of Seville, the Cardinal of Cuse, Pico della Mirandola, and Cornelius, who in the past followed interpretational paths similar to the one that Vieira was undertaking.

    II, p. Besides, by doing that, Vieira was protecting himself from further Inquisitional censorship. Regarding the problem of whether it was legitimate to question the future, he says, there are warnings on how people should be aware of the signs of times so as to be ready at the right moment. In addition, he recalls the names of several commentators who had noticed that the world was aging, i.

    In addition, these signs, in which the decadence of both the world and the Church are reflected, can also be understood as signs of the presence of the antichrist, as Bernard of Clairvaux said. Therefore, the path Vieira suggests to be pursued is contrary to the one normally followed, i. This interpretational shift was necessary, accor- ding to Vieira, to define with precision the time of the kingdom of Christ and of universal conversion to Christianity.

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    Contrary to the apostles, who had been given, at least partially, the knowledge about the end of time when they received the Holy Spirit, those who followed them could legitimately question them- selves about this subject, given its importance. Vieira discusses the universal preaching of the gospel and the period that would mediate between that event and the time of the consummation on earth of the kingdom of Christ. Based on this distinction, he demonstrates the key role of the Portuguese and the missionaries taken on board the discovery ships.

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